Handling AngularJs and CSS3

We know how CSS helps a web page to boost up and beautify its appearence. Thinking of a attractive UI without CSS is impossible. On the other hand we know we can make rich data bound applications with AngularJS. Now what if we can use and handle css through AngularJS? This is what we are going to describe in this article.

We can make our own CSS or use some other libraries like bootstrap etc. to give a webpage better look. This can be achieved using AngularJS also. Here we will see how CSS and CSS animations can be used to make the behavior of built-in directives of AngularJS more attractive.

How to start

Angular sets these css classes which we know as directives. It is up to the application how they are used for beautiful styling.

  • ng-scope
  • ng-isolate-scope
  • ng-binding
  • ng-invalid, ng-valid
  • ng-pristine, ng-dirty
  • ng-touched, ng-untouched
  • Let’s see an example.

    index.html
    [javascript]

    <html ng-app="myApp">
    <head>
    <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="style.css">
    <script type="text/javascript" src="https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/angularjs/1.4.1/angular.min.js"></script>

    <script type="text/javascript">
    var app=angular.module(‘myApp’, []);
    app.controller(‘mainController’,function($scope){
    var names=[‘John’,’Rob’,’David’];
    $scope.names=names;
    });
    </script>
    </head>
    <body>

    <div ng-controller="mainController">
    <input type="text" ng-model="search" placeholder="Search" class="search" />
    <ul>
    <li class="item" ng-repeat="name in names | filter : search">
    {{ name }}
    </li>
    </ul>
    </div>

    </body>
    </html>

    [/javascript]

    style.css

    [javascript]

    .ng-scope{
    box-shadow: 0px 0px 1px 1px #69f;
    }
    .ng-scope.item{
    background:red;
    color:white;
    }

    [/javascript]

    In the above example we are displaying a list of names and stylizing them. After running it we see borders have been colored with sky blue where .ng-scope is applicable and .item class with ng-scope is being displayed with red background and white font color. This is how we can make use of Angular CSS class. Now if we want do something different like CSS animation we can move on with Angular’s ngAnimate module.


     

    According to Angular the following directives are “animation aware”:

    Directive / Supported Animations

    ngRepeat – enter, leave and move
    ngView – enter and leave
    ngInclude – enter and leave
    ngSwitch – enter and leave
    ngIf – enter and leave
    ngClass – add and remove (the CSS class(es) present)
    ngShow & ngHide – add and remove (the ng-hide class value)
    form & ngModel – add and remove (dirty, pristine, valid, invalid & all other validations)
    ngMessages – add and remove (ng-active & ng-inactive)
    ngMessage – enter and leave

    To make use of CSS animations we need to include angular-animate.js and add the module as dependency. Let us proceed with the above example with little bit of changes.

    index.html
    [javascript]

    <html ng-app="myApp">
    <head>
    <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="style.css">
    <script type="text/javascript" src="https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/angularjs/1.4.1/angular.min.js"></script>
    <script type="text/javascript" src="https://code.angularjs.org/1.4.1/angular-animate.min.js"></script>

    <script type="text/javascript">
    var app=angular.module(‘myApp’, [‘ngAnimate’]);
    app.controller(‘mainController’,function($scope){
    var names=[‘John’,’Rob’,’David’];
    $scope.names=names;
    });
    </script>
    </head>
    <body>

    <div ng-controller="mainController">
    <input type="text" ng-model="search" placeholder="Search" class="search" />
    <ul>
    <li class="animate" ng-repeat="name in names | filter : search">
    {{ name }}
    </li>
    </ul>
    </div>

    </body>
    </html>

    [/javascript]

    style.css
    [javascript]

    .animate{
    border: 1px solid #d8d8d8;
    }
    .animate.ng-leave {
    background: red;
    transition: all 0.2s;
    color: white;
    }
    .animate.ng-enter{
    background: blue;
    transition: all 0.2s;
    color: white;
    }

    [/javascript]

    This example shows using of class based animation in AngularJs. When we run the code we see items are being red(background) and disapperaring whenever they are not included as the search result(i.e. .ng-leave) and after that when we clear search box they appear with blue background. When ngAnimate is animating an element it will apply the ng-animate CSS class to the element for the duration of the animation. This is a temporary CSS class and it will be removed once the animation is over (for both JavaScript and CSS-based animations). ng-animate CSS class is reserved and it cannot be applied on an element directly since ngAnimate will always remove the CSS class once an animation has completed.

    We can also make use of CSS Keyframes by referencing the keyframe animation within the starting CSS class. For example we will change our style.css a bit. Let’s have a look.

    style.css
    [javascript]

    .animate{
    border: 1px solid #d8d8d8;
    }
    .animate.ng-leave {
    background: red;
    color: white;
    animation: my_animation1 0.5s linear;
    }
    .animate.ng-enter{
    background: blue;
    color: white;
    animation: my_animation2 0.5s linear;
    }

    @keyframes my_animation1 {
    from { opacity:1; }
    to { opacity:0; }
    }
    @keyframes my_animation2 {
    from { opacity:0; }
    to { opacity:1; }
    }

    [/javascript]

    This example is doing the same thing but in more attractive way.We can also mix transitions and keyframes together as well as any other CSS classes on the same element.

    So the ngAnimate module provides support for CSS-based animations (keyframes and transitions).It also provides support JavaScript-based animations via callback hooks. Animations are not enabled by default untill ngAnimate are included. Doing so the animation hooks are enabled for an Angular app. For both CSS and JS animations all we need is to set a matching CSS class that exists both in the registered animation and within the HTML element that the animation will be triggered on.

    This was our brief discussion on handling AngularJs and CSS3 and ngAnimate to give web application a better look.If you find this article helpful, you can connect us in Google+ and Twitter.

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    How do we use $scope.$apply() in Angular 1.4

    $apply() is a core aspect of AngularJS. This is sometimes confusing to understand. This article describes what is $apply() and how do we use $scope.apply() in Angular 1.4.

    First things first, we will learn what is $apply(). We know there is an awesome feature called data binding in AngularJS which tells that whenever a model is changed ,the view is updated automatically and vice versa. AnguularJS sets an watcher on the scope model which calls an event listener which updates the view as soon as the model changes. Here some question may arise, how watcher determines when to call the listener? Does it periodically check for changes in the model or something else? The answer is that a $digest cycle starts here.

    The $digest cyle starts when $scope.$digest() is called which is fired when we make changes in the model (for example when we use ng-click directive). Each of the watchers are fired when a $digest cycle starts and they check by comparing the current value with last calculated one of the scope model. However $digest is not called directly ,instead $scope.$apply() is called, which in turn calls the $digest automatically that starts a $digest cycle at the $rootScope.

    Now by the above description we see $scope.$apply() is called automatically when changes are made in model and as a result a $digest cycle is also started automatically. Then the question when and how to use $apply() manually? The answer is when a model is changed outside the AngularJS’ context. Whenever we need to make changes in a model outside a Angular context, we need to inform Angular to fire its watchers to effect the changes properly i.e. we need to call the $apply() manually.


     

    So far we have the idea of $apply(). Let’s see an example. We will now use JavaScript’s setTimeout() function to make changes in scope model.

    index.html
    [javascript]

    <!doctype html>
    <html lang="en">
    <head>
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <title>Angularjs $apply()</title>
    <script src="https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/angularjs/1.4.1/angular.min.js"></script>
    <script src="js/script.js"></script>
    </head>
    <body ng-app="myApp">
    <div ng-controller="appController">
    <button ng-click="display()">Hit me </button>
    {{msg}}
    </div>
    </body>
    </html>

    [/javascript]

    script.js
    [javascript]

    var app=angular.module(‘myApp’,[]);

    app.controller(‘appController’, function($scope) {
    $scope.msg="Loading….";
    $scope.display = function() {
    setTimeout(function() {
    $scope.msg = ‘Time elapsed : 5 seconds’;
    console.log($scope.msg);
    }, 5000);
    }
    });

    [/javascript]

    After running the above code we see that value of msg has been changed after 5 seconds in the console but the view remains same (shows ‘Loading…’) as setTimeout() is not from Angular context. It will work if we use Angular’s $timeout. So we need to update our display() function. Let’s do it again with $scope.$apply().

    [javascript]

    app.controller(‘appController’, function($scope) {
    $scope.msg="Loading….";
    $scope.display = function() {
    setTimeout(function() {
    $scope.$apply(function() {
    $scope.msg = ‘Time elapsed : 5 seconds’;
    console.log($scope.msg);
    });
    }, 5000);
    };
    });

    [/javascript]

    Now running this code we get the desired result as $scope.$apply() triggers starts $digest cycle automatically and watchers are fired which udates the view accordingly.

    $scope.$apply() has two vaersions, one takes function as argument and other does not. We could do the above example also with no-argument version as following example

    [javascript]

    app.controller(‘appController’, function($scope) {
    $scope.msg="Loading….";
    $scope.display = function() {
    setTimeout(function() {
    $scope.msg = ‘Time elapsed : 5 seconds’;
    console.log($scope.msg);
    $scope.$apply(); //no-argument
    }, 5000);
    }
    });

    [/javascript]

    This works fine but we should always use the $apply() with the function passed as argument as the function called is wrapped up with a try-catch block so that exceptions can be passed and handled through Angular’s $exceptionHandler service.

    NOTE : Two way data binding and $scope.$apply() will not be in Angular 2.0 .

    Reference : Sitepoint : Understanding Angular’s $apply() and $digest()

    If you find this article helpful, you can connect us in Google+ and Twitter.

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    Bind, Call and Apply in JavaScript

    Functions in JavaScript are object. As objects functions have several methods. Some of them are powerful like Bind, Call, Apply etc. In this article we will discuss about these three methods in detail. In brief, Bind is used to set this value in methods and currying functions. On the other hand Call and Apply are nearly same, used to borrow methods and set this value explicitly. This sounds a little hard. So let’s clarify them.

    Bind

    bind() allows us to bind specific object to this whenever a function or method is invoked i.e. it calls a function with this value set explicitly. This sounds like trivial but often this value in a function must be set explicitly when an object is required to bind to a function’s this value. Sometime this is not bound properly to the object which we expect and causes error. bind() is required whenever we use this keyword in a method and call that method from receiver object. Other uses of bind() are it allows us to borrow methods and curry function. Before we move on to the code we need to understand the this keyword in JavaScript properly. If you already understand it then it’s okay otherwise you can read our article on ‘Understanding “this” keyword in JavaScript‘.

    Okay, we are now ready with this keyword. Let’s take a look an example of bind() function.

    [javascript]

    var data=[
    {"name":"John","age":32},
    {"name":"Peter","age":25}
    ];

    var user={
    data:[
    {"name":"Paul","age":21},
    {"name":"Smith","age":47}
    ],
    showData:function(){
    console.log("name="+this.data[0].name+", age="+this.data[0].age);
    }
    };

    var display1=user.showData;
    display1();

    var display2=user.showData.bind(user);
    display2();

    [/javascript]

    In the above example display1() outputs ‘name=John, age=32’, whereas display2() outputs ‘name=Paul, age=21’. This is because when we are setting user.showData method to display1, global data variable is being accessed by this or window object is assigned and thus resulting in ‘name=John, age=32’. But in the second case we are getting ‘name=Paul, age=21’ as we have used bind() to bind specific object ‘user’ to this. That’s why it is showing data with the value set explicitly.

    In JavaScript we can pass function, return them and borrow them. Next, we will see how bind() is used to borrow methods. Here is an example.

    [javascript]

    var employee={
    data:[
    {"name":"Bob","age":19},
    {"name":"Raul","age":51}
    ]
    };

    var user={
    data:[
    {"name":"Paul","age":21},
    {"name":"Smith","age":47}
    ],
    showData:function(){
    console.log("name="+this.data[0].name+", age="+this.data[0].age);
    }
    };

    var display=user.showData.bind(employee);
    display();

    [/javascript]

    In this example we are adding a method showData to employee object borrowed from user object using bind(). It will result in “name=Bob, age=19”, which comes from employee data. This is okay for our experiment, but the problem with this is that if employee object would have a method showData that would be overwritten. We don’t want to do this accidentally. As we will see later in this discussion ,it is better to borrow method using either Apply() or Call() method.

    Next we will see how JavaScript’s Bind() is used to curry functions. Function currying is also known as partial function application, which is use of a function(with arguments) and returns a new function with some arguments already set. The returned function has also access to the stored arguments and variables of the outer function. Let’s jump into an example to clarify this.

    [javascript]

    function display(name,desig,salary){
    console.log(name+"-"+desig+"-"+salary);
    }

    display("John","Programmer",50000); //John-Programmer-50000

    var bobData=display.bind(null,"Bob","Analyst");
    bobData(60000); //Bob-Analyst-60000

    var danielData=display.bind(null,"Daniel");
    danielData("Manager",70000); //Daniel-Manager-70000

    var ceoData=display.bind(null);
    ceoData("Benn","CEO",100000); //Benn-CEO-100000

    [/javascript]

    As we can see here first display function is outputs as a normal function and rest three functions(bobData, danielData, ceoData) are curried functions. In bobData we are binding display function with name and desig argument fixed. We are modifying right most argument i.e. salary. Whenever it is being called outer property means “name:bob” and “desig:Analyst” are being accessed inside it. In danielData we are binding only the name argument and rest arguments are set as null. Similarly in ceoData we are binding no argument. They are being sent manually whenever they are being called. Thus we can use bind() for function currying.


     

    Call and Apply

    Like Bind , Call and Apply can be used to set this value when invoking functions. The first parameter in the call and apply methods set the this value to the object that the function is invoked upon. Let’s consider the following example.

    [javascript]

    function add(arr){
    this.sum=arr[0]+arr[1];
    }

    var array=[4,5];
    add(array);
    console.log(window.sum); //9
    console.log(sum); //same as window.sum as both points to same

    var mySet={numbers:[10,20]};
    add(mySet.numbers);
    console.log(mySet.sum); //undefined

    add.call(mySet,mySet.numbers);
    //or
    add.apply((mySet,mySet.numbers);
    console.log(mySet.sum); //30

    [/javascript]

    First function ‘add(…)’ simply takes argument and set sum to window object. After creating mySet object when we try to get mySet.sum it results in undefined because this value is not set with mySet. So, after using call(…) or apply function provided with mySet object as first argument we get desired output.

    The Apply and Call functions are same except Apply recieves data in array format. Another thing that Apply can do which Call can’t is executing Variable-Arity Functions.

    Now we will borrow functions with Apply and Call. We can borrow functions with Apply and Call as we did with Bind method but in a little different way. Let’s see the example below

    [javascript]

    var exam={
    scores:[20,30],
    add:function(){
    this.sum=this.scores[0]+this.scores[1];
    }
    };
    var test={
    scores:[50,60]
    };

    exam.add.apply(test);
    console.log(test.sum); //110
    console.log(exam.sum); //undefined

    [/javascript]

    Here test object borrows add() method from exam object and this value defined in that method will be assigned to first parameter i.e. the test object. As a result we get the sum property of test object calculated with it’s scores value and exam object’s sum property is undefined as the object is not set to the method’s this value. Another important thing is if we change the original method, the changes are reflected in the borrowed instances of that method.

    We can pass an array with of arguments to a function and using the apply () method, the function will execute the items in the array if we call the function like

    [javascript]

    someFunc(array[0],array[1],array[2],array[3],array[4]);

    [/javascript]

    This is used for creating variable-arity or variadic functions. These are functions that accept any number of arguments instead of a fixed number of arguments. The arity of a function specifies the number of arguments the function is supposed to accept. A common example of variable-arity function in JavaScript is Math.max() method.

    [javascript]

    Math.max (47,21,50,95,9);
    //We can pass any number of arguments here

    [/javascript]

    But what if we send array of arguments to Math.max() ? The answer is we cannot do this. This is the scenario where Apply helps us to execute variadic functions. Let’s see the code.

    [javascript]

    var numbers = [47,21,50,95,9];
    // We cannot pass an array of numbers to the the Math.max method
    console.log (Math.max (numbers)); // NaN

    //But
    var numbers = [47,21,50,95,9];
    // Using the apply () method, we can pass the array of numbers:​
    console.log (Math.max.apply (null, numbers)); // 95

    //As Math.max() doesn’t use ‘this’ we sent the object as null in first argument.

    [/javascript]

    We will now see another example of our own variadic function to clarify the concept of using Apply here

    [javascript]

    var fruit=["Mango","Apple","Banana","Strawberry","Grape"];

    //As it accepts any number of arguments no parameter is defined
    function getFruit(){
    var args= Array.prototype.slice.call (arguments);
    for(item in args){
    console.log(args[item]); //Mango,Apple,Banana,Strawberry,Grape
    }
    }

    getFruit.apply(null,fruit);

    [/javascript]

    Reference : JavaScript’s Apply, Call, and Bind Methods are Essential for JavaScript Professionals

    This was all about Bind, Call and Apply in JavaScript.If you find this article about JavaScript classes and Angular.js Service helpful, you can connect us in Google+ and Twitter.

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